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Broad Street (85-109)

Photo: 106 Broad St. John Lining House c.1695?

85-87 Broad St. c.1795
Josiah Smith, a wealthy merchant, built this double building after purchasing the site in 1795. In 1797 he conveyed 85 Broad to his son William Steven Smith, an attorney and 87 Broad to his son Samuel Smith, a factor. Eighty-five Broad was purchased from the heirs of William Stevens Smith in 1863 by George Alfred Trenholm, a partner in the blockade running firm, John Fraser & Co., and Confederate Secretary of the Treasury. Eighty-seven Broad was purchased from the Smith family in 1859 by Dr. Wuliam R. Huger, a physician, who maintained his office there until 1878. The two halves of the property were united again in 1878-79 by Simon Fogartie, a grocer and liquor dealer, whose family retained the property until 1919. Since 85-87 Broad was built by Josiah Smith as residences for his sons, rather than as tenements, he finished the building inside and out with considerable taste and attention to detail. The three and one half story building is of Charleston grey brick, laid in Flemish bond, and has the proportion and style of the Adamesque or Federal period. The arched entrance formerly was a passageway extending through the building. The first floor was restored to its former appearance, based on old photographs, in 1976. (Stockton, unpub. MS. ______ , DYKYC, April 4, 1977; Green, unpub. notes; HCF, Stoney, This is Charleston, 14.)

88 Broad St. c.1811
William Trescott, between 1811 and 1813, built this substantial three story brick building and in the latter year leased it to the Bank of the State of South Carolina (note: the plaque on the building erroneously says the building was occupied by the first Bank of the United States prior to 1800.) The bank moved to present day l9 Broad in 1817. The property was purchased in 1833 by the Hebrew Orphan Society. Founded in 1801, th Society had its meeting hall and school on the premises. Except for a brief period in the 1860s, the Society did not maintain an orphanage, but domiciled orphans with selected families. Said Elzas, the Jewish historian, "In this way, in addition to the pecuniary assistance given, the misfortune of the orphanage was softened and the little ones were permitted to live in a healthful family atmosphere." Following the great fire of 1838 which destroyed the synagogue on Hasell Street, the congregation of Beth Elohin worshiped here until the present synagogue was completed in 1840. (Green, unpub. notes; HCF, Elzas, 285-287; Stoney, This is Charleston, 14; Reznifoff, 136, 155-157.)

89 Broad St. c.1786
This three and one-half story stuccoed brick was built before 1786 by Paul Smyser, a planter, or after 1786 by his son-in-law, Maj. Stephen Lee, a watchmaker, factor and planter. Smyser, who purchased the site in 1748, died in 1786, bequeathing the lot, with a house on it, to his daughter Dorothea, who in 1784 had married Lee. The house is more likely to have been built by Lee, since it is in the Adamesque style which did not become common in Charleston until some years after Smyser's death. The Lees and their Lockwood descendants retained the house until 1871. The building was rehabilitated in 1978, at which time Victorian facade features were removed and the present Colonial Revival treatment was applied to the first floor. (Stockton, unpub. MS; Green, unpub. notes; Stockton, DYKYC, Sept. 8, 1980.)

90 Broad St. c.1794
IMAGE 
-- Mrs. Ann Mitchell, widow of James Mitchell constructed this three story brick building c. 1794. The facade shows changes of c. 1860 and c. 1878, and at some point the piazza on the east side was enclosed, with a facade of its own. (Green, unpub. notes; HCF.)

91 Broad St. c.1796
James Pierson, a merchant, built this three and one-half story brick house c. 1796. A pan-tiled hip roof is visible behind the late 19th century Victorian facade. The Adamesque interior is similar to that of 89. (Green, unpub. notes; HCF.)

92 Broad St. c.1783
IMAGE: ON RIGHT -- Dr. David Ramsay's House is so called because it was the home of Ramsay, a physician and historian. He purchased it in 1783. Dr. Ramsay (1749-1815) was born in Pennsylvania and graduated from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) in 1765 and from the Medical School of the College of Pennsylvania in 1772. He studied under Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia, who is credited with introducing the smallpox vaccination to the United States. Dr. Ramsay is credited with introducing the vaccination method to South Carolina. He moved to South Carolina in 1773 and married, as his third wife, Martha Laurens, daughter of Henry Laurens, later president of the Continental Congress. Ramsay served in the General Assembly, 1776-81, and as an army surgeon at the siege of Savannah. Captured at the fall of Charles Town in 1780, he was exiled to St. Augustine. He served in the Continental Congress, 1782-85 and was president pro-tempore of that body. He was president of the S.C. Senate, in which he served, 1801-15. Several works on U.S. and South Carolina history were written while Dr. Ramsay lived at 92 Broad. Ramsay died in 1815 when he was shot by a deranged patient. The house is believed to have been built c. 1740, by Solomon Legare or by his daughter Mary who married Thomas Ellis. lt was originally a two story house. Structural changes revealed during a 1984 restoration indicate the upper floor and garret were added about 1820. The front piazza was probably added about the same time. The house is attributed to a Mr. Miller, a sometime partner with John Fullerton in the building trade, working in the city from the mid-to-late 18th century. The house has an asymmetrical floor plan typical of pre-1750 Charleston houses. The Georgian interior details exhibit high quality as well as variety and interest. (Stockton, unpub. MS; Green, unpub. notes; Ravenel, Architects, 40; Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys 103-108; Thomas, DYKYC, Aug 26, 1968; Stoney, This is Charleston, 14.)

93 Broad St. c.1788
IMAGE
 -- This three story, stuccoed brick house was built sometime before 1788, either by Peter Bocquet, Sr. a Huguenot baker who had acquired the site by 1749, or by his son Peter Bocquet, Jr., a prosperous merchant, planter and politician. It was remodeled and enlarged in the mid-1850s by James Simons, a prominent attorney and Speaker of the S.C. House of Representatives. The senior Bocquet came to Charles Town by 1739, when he married Barbara Sence in St. Philip's Church. In 1744, he was naturalized as a "foreign Protestant." His son, Peter, was born the same year (see 95 Broad). The elder Bocquet died in 1783. Simons, who acquired the property in 1850, was also of Huguenot descent. He was an honor graduate of the South Carolina College, and was considered a superior equity lawyer. He served in the South Carolina House for 20 years, including 12 as Speaker. ln 1861, as commander of the Fourth Brigade of the S.C. Militia, he was in direct command of forces in the initial attack on Fort Sumter, and was commended by Gen. Beauregard. A difference with Gov. Francis W. Pickens, however, barred Simons from further command. He volunteered as a private in the Marion Artillery, where he remained until his health forced retirement. After the war he returned to state military service, reaching the rank of General. After purchasing 93 Broad, Simons had the building as his home and office, in the prevailing style of the 1850s. He died here in 1879 but members of his family continued to live here until the 1890s and owned the property until 1925. His son, James Simons, Jr., who lived at 93 Broad and formed a law partnership with his father here, also served as Speaker of the S.C. House for eight years. Another son, Dr. Manning Simons, was professor of clinical anatomy, professor of general surgery and demonstrator in anatomy at the Medical College of South Carolina. (Stockton, unpub. MS, 1983; Green, unpub. notes; HCF; Stoney, This is Charleston, 14.)

95 Broad St. c.1770
Peter Bocquet, Jr., merchant and planter, built this three and one-half story, stuccoed brick house sometine after acquiring the site as a gift from his father in July 1770. The younger Bocquet, in partnership with his brother-in-law John Wagner, exported deerskins from 1766 to 1772 . He owned several plantations including Jones Plantation, containing 1,230 acres on Stono River. Bocquet was elected to the Second Provincial Congress in 1775 and served in the General Assembly through the Revolutionary period, except during 1780-82, when he was captured and imprisoned and subsequently exiled to Philadelphia by the British. Following the Revolution, in which he was also a major in the S.C. Militia, he was a member of Gov. John Rutledge's Privy Council and Commissioner of the Treasury. Socially, he was president of the German Friendly Society. After 1786, Bocquet lived at 74 Rutledge Ave. Bocquet's house at 95 Broad has some of the finest Georgian rooms in Charleston. The exterior has been altered. The door on the left side of the facade dates from Charleston's Regency period, c. 1815-25; the duplicate on the right is a copy. The wrought iron balcony, however, is considered original. (Stockton, unpub. MS; Green, unpub. notes; HCF; Stoney, This is Charleston, 14; ________, ubpub. MS; SCHS.)

97 Broad St. c.1835
IMAGE
 -- Mordecai Cohen, a merchant, built, c. 1835, three identical, two and one-half story brick houses on high brick basements. No. 97 is the only one remaining. (Green, unpub. notes; HCF.)

98 Broad St. c.1835
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 -- Dr. Henry Frost apparently built the front part of this interesting little building as his office c. 1835. The rear portion appears older and may have been an outbuilding to Dr. Alexander Garden's residence. Dr. Garden, the prominent naturalist for whom the gardenia is named, had a house on the large lot that is now separated into properties known as 98 and 100 Broad St. Since Garden was a Tory, he had to abandon the property when the British evacuated Charles Town in 1782. His son, Maj. Alexander Garden, however, was a Patriot and his claim was recognized by the General Assembly. Garden' s house was demolished in the early 19th century. The rear part of 98 Broad, which has a hipped roof and an oversized chimney, may be the only remains of Garden's occupancy. The front portion is in the Greek Revival style typical of Dr. Frost's period. The first floor of the building contains Adamesque style woodwork from Belvedere, the c. 1800 plantation house of Col. Thomas Shubrick on Charleston Neck. The house was purchased by Standard Oil Co. in 1925 and demolished. Dr. William Horlbeck Frampton, who was Standard Oil's physician, rescued woodwork from the plantation house and installed some in his office here, some in his residence at 40 Rutledge Ave., and other portions subsequently in his home at 98 King St. (Stockton, unpub. MS; ______, DYKYC, June 5, 1978. Green, unpub. notes; HCF.)

102 Broad St. c.1844
IMAGE: ON RIGHT -- Dr. Henry Frost, physician, built this three and one-half story, stuccoed brick residence in the Greek Revival style, c. 1844. (Green, unpub. notes; HCF; Stoney, This is Charleston, 15.)

103 Broad St. c.1837
This three story frame building was built by Peter Brase, a grocer, who bought the lot in 1837 and replaced a brick house on the site. For more than 140 years it housed the grocery business of John Hurkamp & Company and its successors on the site, the Automatic Grocery and the Piggly Wiggly supermarket, which closed in 1983. The building is in the Greek Revival style, with a Victorian storefront restored in 1984. (Stockton, unpub. MS; Green, unpub. notes; HCF; Whitelaw & Levkoff, 92; Rhett & Steel, 30-31; Land, 156; Historical & Descriptive Review, 122-123.)

104 Broad St. c.1758
IMAGE: ON RIGHT -- Peter Bocquet, Sr., the Huguenot immigrant (see 93 and 95 Broad), dowered his daughter Ann in 1758 with this property, on which she and her husband John Wagner built this three story brick house as their residence and his place of business. Wagner was a merchant in the deerskin trade with his brother-in-law, Peter Bocquet, Jr. Their descendants included Lt. Col. Thomas Wagner, S.C.A., for whom Battery Wagner, on Morris Island was named in 1863. Col. Wagner, of the First Regiment of South Carolina (regular) Artillery, lost his life at Fort Moultrie when a gun burst. (Stoney, unpub. MS; SCHS; Green, unpub. notes; HCF; Stoney, This is Charleston, 63; Burton, Siege of Charleston, 152-153.)

105 Broad St. c.1879
IMAGE
 -- Bredenberg Building, built in 1879-80 by John J. Bredenberg of Augusta, Ga., replacing a three story wooden building destroyed by fire in 1879. Bredenberg inherited the property from his brother, John Henry Bredenberg (d. 1866), a grocer, who had bought it in the 1850s. The three story brick building has a cast iron storefront, masonry quoins and a heavy cornice at the parapet. The first two levels are of red pressed brick while the top level and parapet are of unpressed brick. (Stockton, DYKYC, Jan 19, 1981; Helen Bredenberg Smith, letter to SCHS, no date.)

106 Broad St. John Lining House c.1695
IMAGE: TOP OF PAGE -- Lining House. The age of this structure and the question of whether it should be called the John Lining House, continue to perplex historians, despite the ''facts'' cast in bronze on the front of the building. The following is documented, however. The site was Lot 160 of the Grand Modell, granted in 1694 to James DeBordeaux, a Huguenot immigrant. The first mention of a house is in a deed dated l715, in which William Livingston and his wife Ann conveyed to William Harvey, Jr., a butcher, the corner lot ''with the messuage or Tenem't thereon Standing." The deed indicates that the "messuage or tenement" had been standing for some time, had been rented to David Balantine before he died and more lately rented to Harvey. When Harvey and his wife Sarah sold the property in 1828 to Charles and Elizabeth Hill, it was described as having a "Large Dwelling house thereon Erected." The Hills were the parents of Sarah Lining, wife of Dr. John Lining. Charles Hill died after making his will in 1734, leaving the property to his wife Elizabeth, who in 1747, married the Rev. Samuel Quincy, then of Dorchester and later of Bewly, Hampshire. She subsequently died, bequeathing the property to her daughter Sarah Lining, and in 1757, Jacob Motte, as her trustee, conveyed the property to the daughter. On March 5, 1757, Quincy gave a quit claim to John and Sarah Lining. On the same date, they conveyed the property to John Rattray. Lining's residences, and the locations at which he conducted his scientific experiments, have not been documented. In 1733, Dr. Lining advertised his address as Broad Street "opposite Mr. Crokatt's," and later he moved to some other (undocumented) place in Broad Street. To further complicate matters, Dr. Lining owned, from 1739, two tenements on East Bay, but is not documented as owning property on Broad Street. It is tempting, for the sake of pinpointing such an historical site, to speculate that he occupied this house while it belonged to his in-laws. However, that also remains undocumented. Dr. John Lining (1708-1760), native of Scotland, came to Charles Town at the age of 22, and in 1737 began the first weather observations made with scientific instruments and systematically reported, on the American continent. He also conducted on himself experiments in human metabolism (1740), believed to have been the first such experiments made anywhere. He corresponded with Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia on the subject of electricity and carried out Franklin's famous kite and key experiment in a local thunderstorm. Dr. Lining also made studies on yellow fever and wrote one of the first published accounts of that disease in North America. The results of Dr. Lining's experiments were published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of London, and in Gentleman's Magazine, resulting in correspondence between Lining and European scientists. ln 1786, the property was bought by Ann Timothy, publisher of the Gazette. The Gazette had been founded in 1731 by Thomas Whitmarsh, a protege of Benjamin Franklin. He was replaced in 1734 by another Franklin protege, Lewis Timothee (Timothy), a Huguenot. When Lewis died in 1738, his widow Elizabeth, with the help of her half-grown son Peter, continued the paper as the first woman editor and publisher in America. Later Peter Timothy, aided by his wife, the former Ann Donovan, made the South Carolina Gazette a major Patriot organ. For that reason, it was suspended during the British occupation, 1780-83. In 1783 the widowed Ann Timothy revived the paper as the Gazette of the State of South Carolina, which, after her death in 1793 was continued by her son Benjamin Franklin Timothy until 1802. During the Timothy family ownership, the paper was published in this house. In addition, the building was occupied by the apothecary of Dr. Andrew Turnbull, some time between his arrival in Charles Town in 1781 and his death in 1792 (the record is not clear on this point). His was the first of a series of drug stores in the building and when Schwettman's, the last establishment, closed in 1960, the apothecary shop interior was moved to the Charleston Museum. Dr. Turnbull previously had founded the Greek colony, New Smyrna, in East Florida. He refused to renounce his loyalty to the Crown, but remained in South Carolina after the British evacuation in 1783. His wife Maria Garcia, a native of Smyrna, is believed to have been Charleston's first Greek resident. The Lining House was in danger of demolition in 1961, when the Preservation Society of Charleston bought and restored it. The Society sold it in 1972 for use as a private residence. (Stockton, DYKYC, July 12, 1978; Bull, "Lining House;" Steedman, "House of History." Aldredge; Cohen, South Carolina Gazette, passim. Wallace, 199-200. Rogers, Charleston in the Age, 50, 95.)

109 Broad St. c.1773
Martin Campbell, a Charles Town merchant, bought the site of this house in December 1773, when the lot extended east to King Street. Campbell is presumed to have built this house sometime after purchasing the property. His kinsman McCartan Campbell and his wife Sarah sold the property in 1784, with the house on it. The three story frame house has a three tiered piazza with slender turned collonettes, similar to collonettes found on 18th century Galleries in Louisiana, which are said to have been inspired by West lndian prototypes. It is possible these also are derived from examples in the West Indies, with which Charleston had a lively commerce in the 18th century. This house was scheduled for demolition for a townhouse project when it was rescued by the Preservation Society of Charleston in 1962. (Stockton, DYKYC, Aug. 26, 1978; CEP, Aug 13, 1962. Stoney, This is Charleston, 15.)